Connection multiplexing with OpenSSH

Starting with OpenSSH v3.9 there was a new feature that allowed one to run several sessions over the same ssh connection. The benefit of connection sharing is that only the first time you connect to a host you'll need to exchange keys, authenticate, negotiate encryption, etc. Skipping all this initial connection setup, makes any additional sessions to a host you've already connected to very quick.


The easiest way to use connection sharing is to put the following in your ~/.ssh/config — and session multiplexing will be automatic.

Host *
        ControlMaster auto
        ControlPath ~/.ssh/sockets/%r@%h:%p

ControlMaster auto means ssh will try to use an existing socket if available, or set up a new one if none exists. ControlPath specifies where to put the socket file that any additional sessions will use. I put this in my ~/.ssh/sockets/ directory, to avoid potential problems/races on shared /tmp directories. Please remember to create this directory by running:

mkdir -m 700 -p ~/.ssh/sockets/


To see the benefit of this, try connecting two sessions to a server. The the second connection should be a lot quicker than the initial one. Here's a sample towards one of my slower machines, a 1.25GHz Mac Mini:

shell1% time ssh minimac /bin/true

real    0m8.391s
user    0m0.022s
sys     0m0.016s

shell1% ssh minimac
<leave this shell running>

shell2% time ssh minimac /bin/true

real    0m0.028s
user    0m0.004s
sys     0m0.003s

So 8+ seconds to log in to this host normally, and 0.028s for any additional multiplexed session!


The risk with using session multiplexing is that anyone who can read/write your ControllPath, will be able to use them to log in to the same hosts as you're logged in to. So, only use it on machines where you trust everyone with root-access. You might also consider setting ControlMaster autoask, to confirm every connection trough the SSH_ASKPASS program before they're allowed to use the socket.

On my laptop I've always been running an ssh-agent, which has this same problem, and worse, since it will let anyone with root-access use it to authenticate agains any machine I have access to. I've tried telling the agent it should ask for confirmation trough the SSH_ASKPASS program each time my key was used (ssh-add -c), but that got too tedious. Maybe with session multiplexing I can turn on key-usage confirmations again.